BIRD OF THE WEEK: 9/19/2014 SCIENTIFIC NAME: Laterallus jamaicensis
栖息地: Fresh and saline marshes and wet meadors; very local distribution throughout the Americas and Caribbean
的小, red-eyed 黑铁 is only the size of a sparrow and is the smallest rail in North America. 就像它的南美亲戚, 胡宁铁路, 它像老鼠一样难以捉摸, skulking and scurrying under the cover of dense marsh vegetation and rarely taking flight.
尽管它们个头小, 黑铁s are fiercely territorial during the mating season and call loudly and frequently with a distinctive three-noted "kickee-doo."
(Above: 黑铁 recorded by Steve Hampton, XC380363. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/380363. Recorded at Bridgeway Island Pond, West Sacramento, Yolo County, Calif.)
The 黑铁 population has been declining steeply over the last 10-20 years, likely due to increasing development in coastal areas, which has caused habitat loss and degradation of suitable breeding areas.
They are also vulnerable to nest predators such as raccoons, 猫,和老鼠. 入侵植物，如 芦苇, crowd out native marsh vegetation and result in a further loss of habitat. The biggest threat to 黑铁 may be 气候变化; sea level rise could quickly swamp its low-lying habitat.
The 黑铁 was proposed for listing under the Endangered Species 行为 (ESA) in October 2018 and finally listed as Threatened in October 2020.